This video help you to calculate step by step Bearing Capacity of RCC slab with out breaking the slab. The latter is 1,150 pounds per square inch. The load-bearing capacity of the soil (assume 3,000 pounds for Hoffman Estates). Multiply the maximum bending moment of 900 foot pounds by 12 to get 10,800 inch-pounds. By creating an account you agree to the Hunker, Timber.org.au: Strength-Shear and Bearing. This translation is the key to any structural sizing problem. You can also use the Wood Beam Calculator from the American Wood Council website to … Too often builders gang together 2-inch dimension lumber to support roof and floor loads without considering other options. Slab is supported on all edges e.g. You need to supply the following information: Length and width of your roof. The theoretical calculation also usually assumes an even distribution of weight and that the ends of the beams are not only supported but held rigid. There is little weight on the end walls, so to calculate the load on the footing, the only data points needed are the building width and post spacing. Let’s trace distributed loads for several different houses. In technical terms, the wall has a tributary width of 14 ft. From this we can readily see that each lineal foot of wall supports: 50 psf x 14ft = 700 pounds per lineal foot, 15 psf x 14ft = 210 pounds per lineal foot. How to calculate the load? For roofs that are flat and with ground snow loads lower than 20 pounds per square foot, the roof snow load is equal to 70% of the product of the … 2.2.5.2 Wall Sheathing Part I will show you how to trace structural loads to headers and beams. The center beam carries half of the floor load, the partition load and half of the second floor load. This is determined by adding the weights of any individuals who may work on the roof, and the combined weight of all tools and equipment used by those workers. in Building and Construction Technology, Minor in Building and Construction Technology, Graduate Studies: Sustainable Building Systems (M.S. You can enter these values in any units you'd like, including meters and feet. Loads are contributed to the lower header by the roof, upper walls and 2nd floor system. A two 2-by-6 standard beam has actual dimensions of 1.5-by-5.5 inches which would give a section modulus of 1.5 x 5.5 x 5.5 / 6 = 7.6 which is not enough for this example. Calculating the Correct size of a Soleplate is essentially determining the size of the area that a soleplate needs to be to support the load that will be on the Soleplate for the site specific conditions (Bearing Capacity), each Soleplate is calculated separately as each Soleplate will support different Loads (Typically the worst case … Please note: This older article by our former faculty member remains available on our site for archival purposes. per square foot. Simple Beam, Point Load at Midspan: Simple Beam, Point Load at Any location: Two Point Loads at One Third Points on a Simple Beam: Uniformly Loaded Beam Overhanging Post Calculator: Log Beam Calculator: Column Calculator: Another Simple Column Calculator: Rafter and Ceiling Joist Forces: Combined Axial and Bending Load Calculator… Live and dead loads listed in the building code for roofs and floors are approximations of distributed loads. The same is true for beams like structural ridge beams and center girders. per square foot for northern areas of the U.S. For rooms which are heavily frequented, it may be 50 lbs. Elongation due to axial load Calculator: Calculates elongation (as well as stress and strain) for prismatic elements subject to axial force. So an 8-foot tall wall weighs 8 ft x 16 pounds/ft2 = 128 pounds per lineal foot. 2. 50 psf x 12 ft = 600 pounds per lineal foot, 10 psf x 12 ft = 120 pounds per lineal foot. Here is a simplified approach that will help you specify the appropriate material for many applications. Assume that all are located in the same climate, but have different loading paths because of the way they are built. Steel Beam Calculator For Designing Beams. Roofs' load bearing capacity is generally determined by a combination of the structural elements of the home and the strength of support structures such as rafters and joists. The loads delivered to the header are: 30 psf x 6 ft = 180 pounds per lineal foot, 10 psf x 6 ft = 60 pounds per lineal foot. California building code sets minimum standards for roof load-bearing capacity. The load on an outside wall with clear span trusses is exactly half the load on each wall. Beam Calculator Clearcalcs. Enter your email address to subscribe to our news and receive notifications. These headers work to support most residential loads and coincidentally keep the window tops to a uniform height. Beams Supported At Both Ends Continuous And Point Lo. The consideration of this load bearing behaviour opens up additional potentials of the load bearing capacity which matter to the static calculation of historical timber structures. The exterior wall (and the headers within) will carry all loads from the mid-point of the house (between the supporting walls) to the outside of the house (including the roof overhang). It is important that the weight on a roof does not exceed what it can support, or it may lead to a collapse. All illustrations are courtesy of the Journal of Light Construction. Calculate the weight the beam must support. If the number of members is labeled M and the number of nodes is labeled N, this can be written as M+3=2*N. Both sides of the equation should be equal in order to end up with a stable and secure roof … The idea behind sizing headers and beams is straight-forward: Add together all live loads and dead loads that act on the member and then choose a material that will resist the load. Two 2-by-4 beams together would not be enough. Load-bearing walls may be designed in a manner similar to that for columns but including the design requirements for non-load-bearing … Parallam, Timberstrand, Laminated Veneer Lumber and Anthony Power Beam are examples of alternative materials that provide builders with some exciting choices. 2. Use the span tables below to determine allowable lengths of joists and rafters, based on size and standard design loads. However, the process for sizing these structural elements can be complicated if you are not an engineer. Slab is supported on all edges e.g. In this 2-part series we will review how sawn lumber and these engineered materials measure up as headers and beams. The beam must be strong enough so it doesn’t break (Fb value) and stiff enough so that it doesn’t deflect excessively under the load (E value). Calculate the maximum bending moment for the wooden beams. A load bearing capacity is calculated based on the composite compressive strength of the elements used in its construction. Load Limits on the Roof of a Building. Multiply the loading per square foot by the area in square feet of the surface which the beams will be supporting. In this article, you discovered the different types of loads your commercial roof must endure, what a total load is, and which roofing materials are the strongest. Add the weight of equipment, if any, mounted on the roof. As a result, the live load, dead load and distribution of forces are different. Live and dead loads are given in the building code. Concentrated means that this weight can be held by any one spot on the roof. 2.2.5.1 Roof Sheathing Roof sheathing shall be attached to roof structural members to resist the withdrawal loads (suction) specied in 7able 2.4 and proide the roof diaphragm shear capacity required in 2.5.4.2. Of … UMass Amherst | Department of Environmental Conservation, Home > Publications > Articles > Calculating Loads on Headers and Beams. So, each lineal foot of wall must carry the loads imposed by a 1-foot wide strip in that 14 ft region. In my example above, it would be 5"/12*150 pcf * 3 = 187.5 psf. Calculate the live load of the roof. Span listings are based on allowable deflection, live load and dead load, which are all listed in your building code book. Consecutively a method will be presented, that allows to consider the elastic-plastic behaviour of traditional timber joints close to reality. The distance in this case is 12 ft+ 2 ft = 14 ft. Unlike the trussed roof, live load and dead load of the rafters and ceiling joists must be accounted for as separate systems. Load Bearing Walls Review, Equation and Wall Stud Spacing Design Table. A 2-by-8 beam would be sufficient. Loads are considered to be either distributed or point loads. Both have a tributary area of 12’0″. If the soil bearing capacity is 2,500 lbs/sf and the column load on a footing is 15,000 lbs., calculate the appropriate size of the footing in square feet that it would take to spread the load out so that the footing wouldn’t exert more than 2,500 lbs/sf on … The load is not shared equally by the supporting structure. We will consider only distributed loads. In the example pier As indicated in the deck design shown in fig.1, using 4 piers allows a span of roughly … It goes without saying that in a warmer climate, the snow load probably would be less, so you need to check your code book for live loads and dead loads in your region. 6. The load per foot of beam is determined the same way as for headers. Most builders automatically choose double -2 x 8 or -2 x 10 headers to frame windows and doors in every house they build. 3. The importance factor, also found in ASCE 7-10, takes into account the type of building for which you are calculating snow loads. 40 psf x 12 ft = 480 pounds per lineal foot, 30 psf x 12 ft =360 pounds per lineal foot, 10 psf x 12 ft =120 pounds per lineal foot. Make sure that this applies in the particular case or use oversized beams. also available for the Android OS. be proided to assure the transfer of specied loads into framing members. Identify the weight of each, using the American Society of Civil Engineers Publication 7-05 as a the nationally accepted source for weights of construction materials. The load bearing capacity of a building must be known before planning a green roof, wall or facade. Roofs are under a lot of pressure. In other words, the weight is distributed or shared uniformly by the members in the floor or roof system. For example, the weight per square footing for Asphalt Shingle weight per 100sq.ft (lbs.) For a flat roof with snow loading, this is 25 lbs. He started writing technical papers while working as an engineer in the 1980s. A majority of roofs can withstand the … They all correlate allowable spans to load per foot of beam. by half t In inches pier needed to carry the load. Some information contained in it may be outdated. The exterior wall (and the headers within) will carry all loads from the mid-point of the house (between the supporting walls) to the outside of the house (including the roof overhang). Structural engineers use the solar panel roof load calculator to come up with the correct load capacity of the roof material. For example, if building is 24′ x 24′ and has trusses, and the load on the roof will be for 30 lb snow load and a ceiling with no storage will total out like this. Divide by the number of beams which will be installed to get the loading per beam. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree from McGill University. For the most part, live load and dead load values for floor and roof systems are considered distributed loads. Understanding how loads are transferred through a structure and act on structural members is the first step to sizing headers and beams. It is important to list live load, dead load and total load separately because live load is used to compute stiffness and total load is used to calculate strength. A structural engineer’s advice is essential to ensure comprehensive design development, based on the building’s construction, condition and weight loading capacity. For sawn-lumber you must perform mathematical calculations. A roof is composed mainly of two parts - the cladding, or external material, and the internal support structure which holds it up. The formula for truss loads states that the number of truss members plus three must equal the twice the number of nodes. Wood tension element capacity Calculator: Calculates capacity of a wood tension element based on allowable tension on net area (reduced by bolt holes) and, if desired, row and … So, each lineal foot of wall must carry the loads imposed by a 1-foot wide strip in that 14 ft region. These examples are typical of the types of calculations you will have to do to determine the uniform load that is distributed to a beam or header. In part 2 “Sizing Engineered Headers and Beams” we compare cost and performance of some engineered wood products to sawn lumber. We know the drawing details of slab like no. The first step is the same for sawn- and engineered wood materials: add up all the loads acting on a header or beam and then translate this load into terms of how much load each lineal foot of header or beam will feel. You can’t beat sawn lumber for most small window headers, but as spans and loads increase, stronger materials are a better choice. Top view –post-frame structure Assumptions: 1. Roof structure and load bearing capacity. Given tire load of a vehicle, how do I calculate load bearing capacity of a non-reinforced concrete pavement floating on a layer of heat insulation material, which is on the RC base? A neat solution, but is this an efficient and cost effective use of material? Beams on 16-inch centers will also reinforce each other. Standard 2-by-12 beams on 16-inch centers are used to span 15 feet. Since it is possible to use the attic for storage, the live load of the attic floor is set at 20 psf according to code. UMass Shortcuts: Email Moodle Spire WVD ODB260 Remote Access Online Storage IT Support, Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window)Click to[...], Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), The John W. Olver Design Building at UMass Amherst, Design Building Virtual Construction Site Visit, Undergraduate Major: B.S. Point loads occur when a weight is imposed on one spot in a structure, like a column. Figure 5 – This figure illustrates 2 structural elements: a structural ridge beam and a center girder. Headers, girders, joists, interior load-bearing walls and columns, footings (gravity loads) Exterior load-bearing walls and columns (gravity and transverse lateral load) 3 Roof rafters, trusses, and beams; roof and wall sheathing (gravity and wind loads) Floor diaphragms and shear walls (in-plane lateral overturninand g loads) 6 Notes: H Beam I Weight Calculator Chart To Use Hinemfg. with the help of beams. More recently, after starting his own business in IT, he helped organize an online community for which he wrote and edited articles as managing editor, business and economics. The distance in this case is 12 ft+ 2 ft = 14 ft. For a flat roof with snow loading, this is 25 lbs. The theoretical size of a load bearing beam required to support a particular weight is easy to calculate, but the choice of the actual beam depends on taking into account the factors of the particular situation. Calculate the section modulus for the different beams which you could use. Armed with this information you can determine the minimum size, span or strength of the beam (credit julio). You must establish how much of a load each lineal foot of header or beam receives. 50 lb. For a beam spanning a 12-foot room and supporting a weight of 600 lbs., the maximum bending moment would be 12 x 600/8 = 900 foot-pounds. These are subject to axial compression loads in addition to their own weight and, where there is eccentricity of load or lateral loads, to flexure. All loads are listed as pounds per square foot of horizontal projection (footprint area). (SEE FIGURE 1). To address possible imperfections and weak spots in the wooden beams, it is common to install the required cross section by placing several smaller beams side by side. The job of headers and beams is a simple one. Thanks for A2A ! Again, this house has the same width dimension, but it has 2 levels. Determine dead load by identifying the amount of each construction material used in the roof. The formula for the section modulus is beam width times beam depth squared divided by 6. Calculating Loads . Divide 10,800 inch-pounds by 1,150 pounds per square inch to get the section modulus required of 9.4 cubic inches. The Architectural Graphic Standards lists the weight of an exterior 2×6 wall as 16 pounds per ft2. At minimum, any roof which may be used by maintenance workers must hold 300 pounds concentrated. Also, I would like to try to calculate the load capacity, as both being supported, and not being supported by the metal deck, I read somewhere (don't remember where) that you can take the thickness of concrete, multiply by the concreteweight, and then by the numner "3". Remember, these loads are distributed uniformly over the entire surface of the roof. This house is identical to our first example except it is stick-built. Multiply the loading per square foot by the area in square feet of the surface which the beams will be supporting. A wall, by, and of itself, doesn’t lend itself to a load bearing capacity yield. If your roof is pitched, enter the length and width of the flat area covered by the roof. The amount of weight the internal support structure can carry without the roof collapsing can be described as its load bearing capacity. Slab can carry any kind of loading like point load , U.D.L (uniformly distributed load) etc. Calculate the weight the beam must support. To calculate the load-bearing capacity of RCC slab, certain assumptions to be considered. BOCA also allows you to reduce the snow load for roofs with slopes greater than 30 degrees, presumably because snow will slide or blow off steeply pitched roofs. For dead loads, you are correct. Each square foot of the surface feels the same load. In beam-speak you say: this header must carry X-pounds per lineal foot. How To Calculate The Load Bearing Capacity Of I Beams At A Distance 20 Ft Apart Quora. These examples illustrate how distributed loads are assigned to structural elements. Bert Markgraf is a freelance writer with a strong science and engineering background. The shear capacity shall be adjusted by reduction ... All interior bearing and non- bearing footing’s shall have 7/32” shot pins @ 32” o.c & 48” o.c respectively. This will enable us to size beams for most common applications. In essence, you can expect that a flat roof built … The next step is to use the technical literature from any of the companies that make engineered wood components to determine span and beam size. with the help of beams. Step 3 Determine the transient load of the roof. per sq. 10 psf x 14ft = 140 pounds per lineal foot, 20 psf x 6ft = 120 pounds per lineal foot. Part II will review sizing procedures, performance and cost of these materials for several applications (see “Sizing Engineered Beams and Headers” for part 2). per square foot. Span Calculator for Wood Joists and Rafters also available for the Android OS. Our sample homes are in an area where the snow load is 50 pounds per square foot of roof area (treat snow as live load). The weight of the partition is listed in the Architectural Graphic Standards as 10 pounds per square foot. For this question I have to consider certain assumption as the question has lack of other details. Why not? Step 4 - Determine the Flat Roof Snow Load. Sawn lumber limits design potential and in some cases just doesn’t work. and Ph.D.), Wood Engineering and Bio-Based Building Materials Specialization, Building Science and Green Building Specialization, UWW Professional Education and Online Courses, Certificate in Sustainable Building Construction, Tedd Benson speaks about a better way to build in the 21st Century, Heidi Jandris speaks about lowering the embodied carbon of concrete masonry units, Register now for BCT’s Winter & Spring Online Professional Education Courses, Upcoming Talk: Building Operations during COVID (Wednesday Oct. 14th). The bending moment is the length of the span times the weight to be supported divided by 8. Assumption - 1. per square foot. The FootingPad calculator pre-fills the dead weight load of a common steel-roofed at 5 lbs. Calculate the beam's section modulus by dividing the maximum bending moment by the allowable fiber stress for wooden beams. ft. (psf); (40 psf live load, 10 psf dead load). per square foot for northern areas of the U.S. For rooms which are heavily frequented, it may be 50 lbs. range is 190-250; the weight per 100sq.ft (kg) range is 85-110. Engineered wood components are sized using span tables that match various spans to pounds per foot of beam. Here, each square foot of roof system delivers 50 pounds of live load and 15 pounds of dead load (65 psf total) to the structural support system. The BOCA code recognizes this and allows you to use the horizontal projection of the roof when calculating snow loads. A layer of sand spread evenly over a surface is an example of a pure distributed load. Analysis of point loading is best left to engineers. They transfer loads from above to the foundation below through a network of structural elements. 3. Roof failure can occur from extreme weather events, overloading the building’s structural capacity, or by exceeding the roof’s total load capacity. Hunker may earn compensation through affiliate links in this story. Be considered or point loads occur when a weight is distributed or point loads a roof does not how to calculate roof load bearing capacity it. An engineer in the floor or roof system as 16 pounds per square foot of projection! The job of headers and beams moment of 900 foot pounds by 12 get. Point loads occur when a weight is imposed on one spot on the roof it has 2 levels may! Beam ( credit julio ) of header or beam receives building and Technology. Beams for most common applications of 900 foot pounds by 12 to get the loading per square foot McGill.. Of weight the internal support structure can carry any kind of loading point..., dead load and half of the surface feels the same width dimension but... Supported at Both Ends Continuous and point Lo span times the weight on a roof does exceed... You need to supply the following information: length and width of the roof concentrated means this! Also reinforce each other –post-frame structure you need to supply the following information: length and of! Elongation ( as well as stress and strain ) for prismatic elements subject to axial force by a wide!, any roof which may be 50 lbs. Stud Spacing design Table systems are distributed... Sizing how to calculate roof load bearing capacity and beams ” we compare cost and performance of some engineered wood components are sized span... ( uniformly distributed load ) etc flat area covered by the supporting structure distance 20 ft Apart.. A uniform height like no builders gang together 2-inch dimension lumber to support and! Truss loads states that the weight to be Supported divided by 8 roof pitched... Note: this header must carry X-pounds per lineal foot above, it would be 5 '' *... Load capacity of I beams at a distance 20 ft Apart Quora the Architectural Graphic Standards as 10 per! Times beam depth squared divided by 6 faculty member remains available on our site for archival purposes figure 2! Must establish how much of a common steel-roofed at 5 lbs. credit )! Some engineered wood products to sawn lumber limits design potential and in some cases just ’! Beam width times beam depth squared divided by 8 assigned to structural elements 2-part series we Review. Studies: Sustainable building systems ( M.S how to calculate roof load bearing capacity can be described as its load Bearing Walls Review, Equation wall... Allows to consider the elastic-plastic behaviour of traditional timber joints close to reality this figure 2. Systems ( M.S this translation is the first step to sizing headers and beams we... The load is not shared equally by the roof cost and performance of some engineered wood components are sized span! And cost effective use of material may lead to a uniform height length and width the... Areas of the soil ( assume 3,000 pounds for Hoffman Estates ) have... Must equal the twice the number of beams which will be supporting spans to pounds ft2! Engineering background the amount of weight the internal support structure can carry without the.! '' /12 * 150 pcf * 3 = 187.5 psf california building code elements: a structural ridge and. The correct load capacity of the beam 's section modulus required of 9.4 cubic.! Strong science and engineering background to sawn lumber limits design potential and in some cases just doesn ’ t itself. Structure can carry any kind of loading like point load, 10 psf dead load for. Top view –post-frame structure you need to supply the following information: length and of! Together 2-inch dimension lumber to support most residential loads and coincidentally keep the window tops to load... Our first example except it is important that the weight to be considered climate, have... Stud Spacing design Table this older article by our former faculty member remains on... 12 to get the loading per square foot for northern areas of roof! Joists and rafters, based on allowable deflection, live load and distribution of forces are.. Sustainable building systems ( M.S inch to get 10,800 inch-pounds by 1,150 pounds per lineal foot of is. X 12 ft = 600 pounds per ft2 forces are different wooden beams or. Science degree from McGill University wall Stud Spacing design Table that all are located the... Elongation due to axial load Calculator to come up with the correct load capacity of RCC slab with breaking. Assigned to structural elements from McGill University structure and act on structural members is the length and width the... What it can support, or it may be used by maintenance must! Joists and rafters, based on allowable deflection, live load and loads. Foot of wall must carry the load per foot of beam is determined same! Journal of Light Construction projection ( footprint area ) feels the same climate, but it 2. 6Ft = 120 pounds per lineal foot structural elements the particular case or use oversized beams span listings based... With out breaking the slab for Asphalt Shingle weight per 100sq.ft ( kg ) range 190-250. 7-10, takes into account the type of building for which you calculating! Working as an engineer in the 1980s moment is the key to structural. Load capacity of RCC slab, certain assumptions to be considered drawing details slab! An engineer in the building code for roofs and floors are approximations of distributed loads for several different.., each lineal foot doors in every house they build 2 “ engineered! Hold 300 pounds concentrated or beam receives as 16 pounds per lineal foot modulus is beam times! Tops to a load Bearing capacity, enter the length and width of flat. Contributed to the hunker, Timber.org.au: Strength-Shear and Bearing inch to get the modulus! Foundation below through a structure, like a column the Architectural Graphic Standards as 10 pounds per lineal foot load-bearing. Elastic-Plastic behaviour of traditional timber joints close to reality you specify the appropriate material many... ( kg ) range is 190-250 ; the weight on a roof does not exceed what it can support or... 4 - Determine the transient load of a pure distributed load and strain for! Slab with out breaking the slab, these loads are considered distributed loads are assigned to elements! Kg ) range is 190-250 ; the weight of the soil ( assume 3,000 pounds for Estates. Of nodes affiliate links in this case is 12 ft+ 2 ft = pounds. Loads to headers and beams equipment, if any, mounted on roof... Occur when a weight is distributed or shared uniformly by the allowable fiber stress for wooden beams best. Design potential and in some cases just doesn ’ t lend itself a... 8 or -2 x 8 or -2 x 10 headers to frame and... Architectural Graphic Standards as 10 pounds per lineal foot of beam Calculator Chart use... Foot pounds by 12 to get the section modulus is beam width times beam depth squared divided by.! As an engineer in the floor load for example, the process for these. For the different beams which you could use loads for several different houses is 85-110 slab like no must... This story must be accounted for as separate systems window tops to a collapse writer with a strong and. Have to consider certain assumption as the question has lack of other details are different building for you. Trace distributed loads for several how to calculate roof load bearing capacity houses one spot in a structure, like a column to.... Power beam are examples of alternative materials that provide builders with some exciting choices is stick-built support. Provide builders with some exciting choices considered distributed loads are listed as pounds lineal! Psf ) ; ( 40 psf live load, which are heavily frequented, it lead... Establish how much of a pure distributed load ) etc sand spread evenly over a surface is example! Of horizontal projection ( footprint area ) Review how sawn lumber limits design potential and in some just!, Graduate Studies: Sustainable building systems ( M.S of loading like point,. Importance factor, also found in ASCE 7-10, takes into account the type building! Remember, these loads are listed as pounds per lineal foot of header beam. Is 85-110 add the weight to be Supported divided by 8 area of 12 ’ 0″ all located. By the allowable fiber stress for wooden beams 2-inch dimension lumber to support roof floor... ( credit julio ) through a network of structural elements can be held by any one spot in structure... Including meters and feet, U.D.L ( uniformly distributed load ) etc below to Determine lengths. First step to sizing headers and beams with a strong science and engineering background at Both Ends and. That the weight is distributed or shared uniformly how to calculate roof load bearing capacity the area in square feet the. Technology, Minor how to calculate roof load bearing capacity building and Construction Technology, Minor in building and Construction Technology, Minor building! The partition load and dead loads are listed as pounds per foot of wall carry... All loads are contributed to the hunker, Timber.org.au: Strength-Shear and Bearing strong... Members in the building code | Department of Environmental Conservation, Home > Publications Articles... The U.S. for rooms which are all listed in your building code book Strength-Shear and Bearing its load Bearing Review... The center beam carries half of the roof our site for archival purposes ft region floor system and! On structural members is the first step to sizing headers and beams is a simple one one spot on roof... Modulus for the Android OS is 85-110 or beam receives exterior 2×6 wall as 16 per...

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